Irrigation : What You Should Know ?
Irrigation refers to artificially applying water to soil or agricultural land. It is the use of rainwater to supplement or replace it. It is useful in dry areas or during periods of low rainfall.
The purpose of irrigation systems is to help in growing crops and plants.
Tube And Well Irrigation
Merits well are the simplest, cheapest, and most reliable source of irrigation. You can use it whenever you need it. You can use several chemicals like nitrate, chloride, or sulphate. Well, water has a higher fertility rate than regular tap water. You can rely on well water during droughts when the surface water runs dry.
Demerits It is not possible to irrigate large areas. The groundwater level drops and there isn’t enough water. Tube wells may draw groundwater from neighboring areas and dry out the ground, rendering it unsuitable to be used for agriculture.
To create a tank, you need to build a small ring of earth or stones across a stream. The water in the bund can be used for irrigation or other purposes. Tank is an important source of irrigation.
Features: Many tanks are naturally constructed and don’t have a high cost of construction. They last longer. Many tanks also allow fishing which adds to both farmers’ food and income.
Demerits: Many tank tanks are subject to drying out and do not provide irrigation during the dry season. Transferring water from tanks to the fields is a difficult and costly job.
Drip irrigation involves water being applied directly to the root by emitters and drippers. This low rate can vary from 2-20 L/hour. With frequent irrigations, soil moisture is maintained at its optimum level.
Drip irrigation can be used for a variety of crops.
Merits: Nero and fertilizer losses are minimized through the localized application, and less leaching. Field leveling of fertilizer is not necessary.
Recycled water that is not potable can be used. Water application efficiency is improved. It is easier to control soil erosion and weed growth.
Demerits: An initial cost of more can cause problems such as clogging and wastage of time, water, and harvest if the system isn’t installed correctly.
This involves spraying water in the air. The waterfalls on the ground and looks somewhat like rain. The spray is made by the pressure of water through small openings or nozzles. Sprinkler irrigation is ideal for irrigation of uneven land and low-lying soils.
Sprinkler irrigation works well with almost all crops, except jute and paddy. Sprinklers are suitable for irrigation of all types of crops including vegetables, plants, orchards, and plantation crops.
Features: Compatible with all soil types except heavy clay. Water-saving. Increase in yield. The land is saved by not using bunds or other invasive methods. They are required.
Demerits: Higher initial cost. The application efficiency is low under high winds and high temperatures.
Other Types of Irrigation
Furrow irrigation is a method for surface irrigation in which trenches are dug between crop rows. Furrow irrigation is where water is flowed by farmers down into the furrows. The water seeps both vertically and horizontally to fill the soil reservoir. Each furrow’s flow can be individually controlled.
Furrow irrigation presents a challenge in that water must be evenly distributed over the field. Furrow irrigation can also lead to increased water loss from runoff.
Surge irrigation is a form of furrow irrigation where water is continuously pulsed for a set period. Continuous flow is more efficient than continuous because of the lower infiltration rates due to the drying and wetting cycles.
This is a traditional method where ditches have to be dug and seedlings are planted in rows. Watering the plantings is done by placing canals and furrows in between each row of plants. Siphon tubes are used for moving water from the main ditch towards the canals.
Seepage Irrigation or Sub Irrigation: This method of irrigation delivers water from the soil to the plant root zones and is absorbed upwards. You may also be able to collect the excess water and reuse it.
The benefits include water and nutrients conservation and labor-saving.
The cost of outfitting can be quite high. Potential problems include the possibility that there may be an increase in disease rates in recycled water.
The farmer should be aware of the soil type, irrigation water quality, irrigation products, and frequency to implement the irrigation system properly.